Purple Sweet Potato Extract Immobilization in Natural Rubber Films: A Potential Application for the Detection of Fe(III)


  • Bismee Hayeeyoosoh
  • Saluma Samanman
  • Amin Fatoni
  • Sitimaryam Salaehsa
  • Aslan Hilae
  • Irfan Masaesai
  • Anusa Suwanwong


Sensor, Extract, Purple sweet potato, Iron, Natural rubber latex film


A film sensor for the detection of Fe(III) was developed by immobilizing the purple sweet potato extract in a film formed by natural rubber latex. The films were characterized using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and the color intensity was measured with a color intensity meter. Film analysis results found that the purple sweet potato extract can be immobilized in the natural rubber latex film. At a contact time of 2 hours, the films exhibited an irreversible color change from moss to yellow in response to the presence of Fe(III), which was related to the concentration of a metal solution ranging from 12.5 to 100 ppm. The contact time of the film with the metal solution was an important parameter that should be considered. It was found that the color change of the film became clearer with increasing time. Therefore, it can be seen that the developed natural rubber film containing the purple sweet potato extracts has the potential to be developed for the determination of iron (III). Furthermore, for improvement of the detection limit and the reduction of the contact time, the measuring conditions need to be studied.


Ali Shah A., Hasan F., Shah Z., Kanwal N., & Zeb S. (2013). Biodegradation of natural and synthetic rubbers: A review. International Biodeterioration Biodegradation, 83, 145–157.

Araceli C.O., Ma. de Lourdes P.H., Ma. Elena P.H., José A. R., & Carlos Andrés G. V. (2009). Chemical studies of anthocyanins: A review. Food Chemistry, 113(4), 859-871.

Chaiyasut, C., Sivamaruthi, B.S., & Pengkumsri, N., (2016). Anthocyanin profile and its antioxidant activity of widely used fruits, vegetables, and flowers in Thailand. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, 9(6), 218–224.

Chang, C. J. (2015). Searching for harmony in transition-metal signaling. Nature Chemical Biology, 11, 744-747.

Choi, I., Lee, J. Y., Lacroix, M., & Han, J. (2017). Intelligent pH indicator film composed of agar/potato starch and anthocyanin extracts from purple sweet potato. Food Chemistry, 218, 122–128.

Dahlan, H.M., Zaman, M.D.K., & Ibrahim, A. (2002). Liquid natural rubber (LNR) as a compatibiliser in NR/LLDPE blends—II: The effects of electron-beam (EB) radiation. Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 64, 429–436.

Dixon, S. J., & Stockwell, B. R. (2014). The role of iron and reactive oxygen species in cell death. Nature Chemical Biology, 10, 9-17.

Heriveltom M. S., & Titus (2020). Anthocyanin immobilization in carboxymethyl cellulose /starch films: A sustainable sensor for the detection of Al(III) ions in aqueous matrices. Carbohydrate Polymers, 230(10), 115679.

Kang, H.J., Ko, M.J., & Chung, M.S. (2021). Anthocyanin structure and pH dependent extraction characteristics from blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum) and chokeberries (Aronia melanocarpa) in subcritical water state. Foods, 10, 527-538.

Kaur, B., Kaur, N., & Kumar, S. (2018). Colorimetric metal ion sensors – A comprehensive review of the years 2011–2016. Coordination Chemistry Reviews, 358, 13–69.

Kew, M.C. (2014). Hepatic iron overload and hepatocellular carcinoma. Liver Cancer, 3, 31-40.

Khaodee, W., Aeungmaitrepirom, W., & Tuntulani, T. (2014). Effectively simultaneous naked-eye detection of Cu(II), Pb(II), Al(III) and Fe(III) using cyanidin extracted from red cabbage as chelating agent. Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, 126, 98–104.

Khaodee, W., Wongkiti, R., & Madang, S. (2018). The application of using natural reagent extracted from purple sweet potato for naked-eye detection of copper in water samples. Naresuan University Journal: Science and Technology, 26(3), 181–188.

Li, X.-D., Li, J., Wang, M., & Jiang, H. (2016). Copigmentation effects and thermal degradation kinetics of purple sweet potato anthocyanins with metal ions and sugars. Applied Biological Chemistry, 59(1), 15–24.

Majdinasab, M., Mohammad H.H.S., Sepidname, M., Negahdarifar, M., & Li, P. (2018). Development of a novel colorimetric sensor based on alginate beads for monitoring rainbow trout spoilage. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 55(5), 1695–1704.

Mathew, V.S., Sinturel, C., George, S.C., & Thomas, S. (2010). Epoxy resin/liquid natural rubber system: Secondary phase separation and its impact on mechanical properties. Journal of Material Science, 45, 1769–1781.

Mounir, A., Darwish, N.A., & Shehata, A. (2004). Effect of maleic anhydride and liquid natural rubber as compatibilizers on the mechanical properties and impact resistance of the NR–NBR blend. Polymer Advance Technology, 15, 209–213.

Ma, Q., & Wang, L. (2016). Preparation of a visual pH-sensing film based on tara gum incorporating cellulose and extracts from grape skins. Sensors and Actuators B, Chemical, 235, 401–407.

Martinez-Lopez, C., Sakayanagi, M., & Almirall, J. R. (2018). Elemental analysis of packaging tapes by LA-ICP-MS and LIBS. Forensic Chemistry, 8, 40–48.

Mohammad H.M, Mansoureh S., Mahnaz, P. Iran, S., Mohammad M. A., Mohammad, A. liKarimi. (2008). Flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination of ug amounts of Fe (III) ions after solid phase extraction using modified octadecyl silica membrane disks. Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy, 63 (8), 889-892.

Mohammed, M.R., Sher, B.K., Hadi, M.M., Abdullah, M.A., & Khalid, A.A. (2012). Selective Iron(III) ion uptake using CuO-TiO2 nanostructure by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry, Chemistry Central Journal, 6, 158.

Nam, J., Jung, I.B., Kim, B., Lee, S.M., Kim, S.E., Lee, K.N., & Shin, D.S. (2018). A colorimetric hydrogel biosensor for rapid detection of nitrite ions. Sensors and Actuators B, Chemical, 270, 112–118.

Ogata, J., Kanno, Y., Itoh, Y., Tsugawa, H., & Suzuki, M., (2005). Anthocyanin biosynthesis in roses. Nature, 435, 757–758.

Piriya, V. S. A., Joseph, P., Daniel, S. C. G. K., Lakshmanan, S., Kinoshita, T., & Muthusamy, S. (2017). Colorimetric sensors for rapid detection of various analytes. Materials Science and Engineering, 78, 1231–1245.

Srilathakutty, R., John, N., Joseph, R., & George, K.E. (1996). Use of amine terminated liquid natural rubber as a plasticiser in filled NR and NBR compounds. International Journal Polymer Materials. 1996, 32, 235–246.

Suhawati, I., Rusli, D., & Ibrahim, A. (2014). Functionalization of Liquid Natural Rubber via Oxidative Degradation of Natural Rubber. Polymers, 6, 2928-2941.

Wayakron, P. C., Bumee, R., Namahoot, J., Ruamcharoen, J., & Ruamcharoen, P. (2013) Polyurethane polyester elastomer: Innovative environmental friendly wood adhesive from modified PETs and hydroxyl liquid natural rubber polyols. Interanational Journal Adheion and Adhesives, 41, 127–131.

Weber, K.A., Achenbach, L.A., & Coates, J.D. (2006). Microorganisms pumping iron: anaerobic microbial iron oxidation and reduction. Nature Reviews Microbiology, 4, 752–764.

Wulandari, A., Sunarti, T.C., Fahma, F., & Noor, E. (2018). Potency of purple sweet potato’s anthocyanin as biosensor for detection of chemicals in food products. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 147, 012007.




How to Cite

Hayeeyoosoh, B., Samanman, S., Fatoni, A., Salaehsa, S. ., Hilae, A., Masaesai, I., & Suwanwong, A. (2023). Purple Sweet Potato Extract Immobilization in Natural Rubber Films: A Potential Application for the Detection of Fe(III). Pridiyathorn Science Journal, 1(2), 86–100. Retrieved from https://li04.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/psj/article/view/1150



Reserch Article